Wednesday, July 27, 2016

Chanbara Facts and Figures

Yesterday, I made this cover mock-up for Chanbara, and in the less than 24 hours since I posted it on G+, it's really grown on me. I especially like the illustration of a female samurai fighting a monstrous spider-thing. That should hopefully say exactly what you're getting with Chanbara. It's not an attempt at another historical feudal Japan RPG (Sengoku, and Bushido before it, pretty much have that covered). It's Japan-inspired fantasy, much like Flying Swordsmen is China-inspired fantasy, both done with OSR mechanics.

I also took a few notes about the contents of the rules (at this stage, I doubt if any major changes are in store) and here's what you'll be getting in Chanbara, mechanics-wise, that may be useful to you even if you don't want to run the game as-is and just want to cherry pick for your OSR game.

3 Classes with 11 Profiles (subclasses)
Bushi (Fighter)
-Abarenbo ("rowdy" sorta like the Barbarian, only low class instead of from another culture)
-Kensei ("weapon master" as you'd expect, similar to the OA Kensai)
-Samurai ("warrior aristocrat" again as you'd expect)
-Sohei ("warrior monk" again similar to the OA Sohei)
Mahotsukai (Magic-User)
-Onmyoji ("exorcist" a ghost-busting diviner, but fairly different from a Cleric)
-Soryo ("priest" a social-oriented protector and healer, not martial oriented)
-Yamabushi ("mountan mystic" an elementalist magician)
Shinobi (Spy)
-Kagemusha ("shadow warrior" a mystical oriented spy)
-Ninja ("ninja" an equipment oriented spy)
-Taijutsuka ("marital artist" a combat-oriented spy)
-Uragata ("secret agent" a social-oriented spy)

Spells: There are a total of 96 spells in the game, spread out over 5 levels, with 32 spells for each profile.

Equipment: Aside from armor, weapons, normal adventuring gear, services and hirelings similar to what you'll find in most OSR games, there are 27 special Shinobi items.

Monsters: I've divided the monster chapter into three parts, NPCS (12 stat blocks, with some blocks covering more than one type of NPC), 30 normal animals (stats only no descriptions, you can Google them if you don't know what one of these real world animals are), and over 50 different monsters (40 stat blocks, a few have variants listed) based on Japanese myths and legends.

There is also a different Background Skills system (2d6 based), and Ninpo (Shinobi skills) work also on a 2dX roll rather than the d% style of D&D.

Sunday, July 24, 2016

The jorogumo must die!

Another successful Chanbara playtest!

Last time, Dean and Jeff's characters died at the hands of a jorogumo (demonic spider-woman). This time, Alexei's Samurai and Dean's new Sohei used some clever tricks to defeat the monster easily, mostly avoided a few traps, and rescued a trapped kirin. In the process, they gained some treasure (finally) and also a few magic weapons.

There were some magic weapons in the very first adventure that they could have acquired, but they missed out on them. Now, five sessions (or is it six?) later, they've finally managed to get their hands on some.

We played this session at 5th level, but since only two players could come, I'm going to stay at 5th for our next session, which will hopefully be sometime next month, sooner rather than later. I'm also doing some edits on the rules draft, based on these play test games, but nothing major needs to be changed. It's mainly just fixing a few discrepancies, clarifications of effects or abilities, etc. The game holds up through the first half of the level spread. Hopefully the higher level adventures play similarly well.

Tuesday, July 19, 2016

Playtest Doldrums and some Light at the End of the Tunnel

My RPOL play by post play-test game has pretty much floundered. There are three active players, and by active I mean they maybe post once a week at best. My schedule is chaotic, and I keep having to cancel, delay or postpone the live, G+ Hangouts games (session this Saturday, fingers crossed it happens!).

It makes me wonder if play testing was such a great idea after all. I didn't really play test Flying Swordsmen. I did some masturbatory number crunching/die rolling on a few things, but mostly since I was cloning Dragon Fist I figured the mechanics were pretty sound. With Chanbara, I'm designing a lot myself, so I wanted to play test it. And so far, it's done well for what I want it to do. I was hoping to get to play through all 10 levels with the G+ group. And maybe we will before I get this thing ready for release.

So while I was a bit down on the whole slog of play testing a game I barely have time to play, I got an email a few months back from a guy who'd read about Chanbara and found the players' playtest document I'd put on the web for the RPOL group. And he ran a session with his group of players.

He gave me some very useful feedback on the game, and since they found some things problematic that my groups haven't, but also found some things unproblematic that one or the other of my groups have, I think it may be less of problems with the rules themselves than in player preference.

The areas of concern from Stefan's group that match with things my groups have mentioned are areas I should address. Other things that have seemed like a problem for only one of the three groups may be the sort of thing DMs should address for their table's preference, not necessarily flaws with the game.

That's got me excited to give Chanbara one final revision, have some outside editing done, and then move on to formatting it! I'm working on my dissertation this summer, trying to get a first draft written, so that comes first, but when taking breaks from it, I'll likely be putting the finishing touches on Chanbara.

No promises of a release date, but this will be released in both PDF and print sometime this year or (more realistically) next.

Thursday, July 14, 2016

Got Orcs?

I've just put my newest fold-up paper minis set on DriveThruRPG.com, and it's all about them orcs.

Lair Pack 1: Orcs features all the orcs you need to fill up your battle mat when running adventures like the Caves of Chaos or your own orc lair dungeon. It features three orc "grunts" with sword, spear and bow respectively (14 figures each), a quartet of orc chieftains, an ogre, a troll, and a trio of wild boars.
http://www.drivethrurpg.com/product/188090/LP1-Orcs-Lair-Pack?manufacturers_id=8305
Each mini is in its own layer on the page, with all text and formatting features in the background to save you printer ink when you only need to print a few figures.

Full disclosure, the orc with sword, orc chieftain, ogre and boar appear in my Basic Monsters series. The orc spearman, archer and troll are new. The ogre was modified, since the original in Basic Monsters printed too dark to see the details.

The best part about it? It's only $2. That's right, you can have all this orcish fun just for a mere $2. That's half the price of that Starbucks drink you've got.

Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Fun with the Fermi Paradox

Recently, in addition to working on my dissertation, making a new set of fold-up paper minis (just need to format the pdf), and getting ready for a vacation, I've been watching Neil DeGrasse Tyson's Cosmos: A Spacetime Oddysey. I missed it two years ago when it first aired. And of course, my mind is now thinking of lots of interesting ways to set up a galactic scale sci-fi RPG campaign.

One good place to start for assumptions about extraterrestrial life in the universe is the Fermi Paradox, and the Great Filter hypothesis that goes with it. Are you familiar with it? If so, you can skip the next paragraph. If not, here's the Fermi Paradox in brief (and click that link for an excellent in-depth discussion of it if you want to know more):

If the estimated number of stars in the universe, the estimated number of planets around those stars, and the estimated chances of life spontaneously arising on any planet with suitable conditions are what scientists believe them to be, even at the lowest, most conservative numbers, our universe must be bursting with life. And given the 13.5 billion or so years since the Big Bang, there must be many intelligent species out there besides us. Yet (this is the paradox), we can't detect any signs of them (or have we?). There are several explanations for why this might be so, including the idea of the Great Filter, an event that makes it highly improbable that life will advance to not only intelligence, but to super-intelligence levels needed to colonize other planets.

So that's the Fermi Paradox in a nutshell (and I'm sure I've introduced some error into the concept by such a brief recap, so if you're interested, click that first link above and enjoy). And the various hypotheses that seek to explain it can give  your sci-fi campaign some interesting twists. The best thing is, they're fairly setting neutral, unless you're planning to use a popular sci-fi franchise like Star Wars, Star Trek, Babylon 5, Firefly, what have you.

The first way to solve the Fermi Paradox is to suggest that there ARE NO HIGHER CIVILIZATIONS (we aren't quite there yet in real life). In other words, the Great Filter is behind us. Let's look at some conceits that could inform your sci-fi campaign if this were the case:

1. There is no life in the universe except that on Earth.
The Earth is the only planet where there is life. The Great Filter is the formation of life itself.

You could set up a campaign set on Earth in the far future, just with lots of fun high tech toys, but otherwise more or less your typical human drama. Or you could set up an explore/terraform/colonize setting, where the PCs are faced with this challenge - to seek out suitable worlds for colonization (exploration and bottle-city human drama on their ship), or to be among the terraformers or colonists (a survival against nature game).

The Bible (or whatever creation myth you choose) was correct after all. Considering Einstein's Theory of Relativity, if you choose the Earth as your frame of reference and consider celestial motion in a certain specific way, the universe DOES revolve around the Earth. Could the revelation of our unique status in this universe propel humans to embrace Scripture and form future theocracies? This might step on a few real world toes among players, so use this idea with caution.

2. There is life in the universe, but we are the only intelligent life. 

Maybe we're the first and more will come later, or maybe others existed before and were wiped out. The Great Filter is behind us, or else where we are now in the early 21st Century (nuclear or environmental devastation of the planet, overpopulation leading to catastrophe, etc.), and humans just squeak through.

In this case, you may have a campaign set up where the PCs are among colonists sent to settle other habitable planets with no need of terraforming. Of course, the life forms on the other planets will be different, interesting, and often dangerous. If you go with a "we're the first" premise, then you get exploration, cataloging and survival on alien worlds. If you go with a "no others survived this far" premise, you can add in exploration of the ruins of lost alien civilizations to the above. [Stars Without Number uses this conceit as its default, with options to add in alien species if the GM wishes.]

3. There is other intelligent life, but they're only just as advanced as us, or less so.

Conditions in the universe have been such that we're leading the pack as far as super-intelligent civilizations go. The Great Filter is behind us, and behind several other civilizations. And we were just too far away to detect each other's presence until the advent of FTL, warp engines, star gates, or however you want to move people around interstellar distances easily in your campaign.

In this universe, it will be a game of planetary exploration as in #2, but with First Contact opportunities, and the interspecies ice-breaking games that come with that contact. There will be a limited number of player races (the few super-intelligent species), but there could be any number of intelligent but non-advanced civilizations on other planets if the Great Filter is the industrial/nuclear age transition. [Star Frontiers uses this conceit, with only five star-faring races, all of comparable tech levels.]

Finally, it could be that humans form the first Type II civilization and are the first to colonize other planets. If there are other intelligent but not yet advanced alien species out there, then it may be the job of the PCs to study them passively (a la Star Trek's Prime Directive), or to conquer them, or to make peaceful contact with those we can and enlist their help to pacify those we can't make peaceful contact with (although if we're the only star-faring race, there would need to be some sort of situation like James Cameron's Avatar, with its unobtanium, necessitating our even bothering with the hostile aliens).

The second way to solve the Fermi Paradox is to suggest that ADVANCED ALIEN CIVILIZATIONS ARE OUT THERE, BUT FOR SOME REASON WE CAN'T DETECT THEM. We are probably past the Great Filter (although not necessarily), if a Great Filter exists, but by design of the aliens, limits of our technology, or cosmic chance, we (us, real 21st Century humans, not your campaign) just haven't encountered these other civilizations yet. These also give use plenty of fodder for designing a campaign.

4. Advanced aliens visited Earth long, long ago, and just haven't been back since then.

This idea, the Ancient Astronauts theory, is of course a popular one now. Maybe the aliens seeded life here, then forgot to return (or were wiped out by enemies). Once humans gain interstellar travel capabilities, the campaign could be one of piecing together the mysterious clues to the origin of life on Earth.

Or maybe the aliens finally return, and bring humans into the galactic (or intergalactic) civilization. This way, you could play as modern humans, out exploring the galaxy for the first time, but with guides along the way. Alternately, the seeding species may have put us here for a purpose (crops, slaves, lab rats) and the PCs have to resist the alien overlords. Wars of humans vs. alien invaders is probably not a trope I need to go into great detail here, I'm sure you've got a handle on this idea.

The third idea related to this is that our ability to get past the Great Filter, or simply to develop to a Type II and/or space-faring species is some sort of test. Once we pass the test, we become citizens of the galaxy. The campaign will again consist of the players having to negotiate strange alien customs while exploring the galaxy.

5. Most of the galaxy has been colonized by a single Type II or proto-Type III civilization, but the Earth is in a galactic backwater. 

This is the basic concept of the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy series. There's just nothing on Earth to interest the aliens, so why would they bother coming here? As with the Hitchhikers series, maybe the aliens have just stared paying attention at the time the Great Filter hits (whether that be Vogons or something more serious is up to you), and the PCs are the few survivors taken in by the aliens at the last minute. And it need not be silly as in the Hitchhiker books.

Or maybe 'Space Noah' leads a small group of survivors off of Earth just in time, and when they escape destruction, they find an advanced civilization has already pretty much taken all the good planets. This could then be a sort of Battlestar Galactica type game, where the few survivors of Earth need to explore, fight, negotiate, or run from the galactic civilization.

It could also be that there's no imminent disaster for Earth, but a select few, the PCs, by design, chance, or fate, have been taken from Earth (or find a one-way ticket off through science). Maybe they want to get back, and that's the campaign -- survive in the galaxy long enough to find a way back to Earth. Maybe they're happy with their lot in life, and have no desire to return to Earth (like Star Lord in Guardians of the Galaxy). Whether galactic murder-hobos or scientific explorers, the PCs can enjoy their status as "oddities" among the galactic civilization(s).

6. There are several Type I and Type II civilizations that vie for control of the galaxy.

This one, again, maybe doesn't need a lot of explaining. There are two or more "galactic empires" that compete for habitable worlds to colonize, or lesser species to exploit, or just have some sort of beef with each other that prevents them from coexisting (the desire to become the Type III civilization of the Milky Way, maybe). Humans could be one of these empires (and the campaign would be similar in some ways to Star Trek, with the Federation, Klingons, Romulans, Borg, etc.), or we could be caught in the crossfire once we're finally noticed or make ourselves known. Maybe the aliens notice the potential of humans, and they are vying to make us allies. Maybe they notice the potential in humans, and are trying to wipe us out before we become yet another threat. 

7. Physical colonization of planets is unfeasible, and interstellar travel is a rarity.

In this situation, the cost outweighs the benefit for galactic colonies. If Type I or Type II civilizations are utilizing all potential energy sources of their planet/star, why bother going somewhere else? Maybe the civilizations come into contact by some form of FTL communications system (the ansible of the Ender books, or subspace frequencies of Star Trek, for example). We can learn from them, they can learn from us, in some sort of galactic Google Hangouts sessions, but never shall we meet...unless, a crazy group of humans (the PCs) decide to build an FTL ship just for shits and giggles and set out to meet these other peoples of the galaxy! This could be fun, because each planet visited would then open up the opportunities for the players to play a member of an alien species (they've got their own crazy weirdos as well).

8. Smart civilizations don't advertise. 

There may be predatory alien species (the lizard folk of V, the whatever they are from Independence Day, etc.). The smart civilizations don't go around making unnecessary signals that would draw their attention. There's a lot of potential with this idea. Humans may have made the mistake of attracting unwanted attention (war against alien invaders) which then leads to the need to find extra-terrestrial allies -- not easy when they don't want to be found. This would be a combination of survival/war, and exploration/mystery solving.

Maybe WE are the predator species, and we need to hunt down and locate the inhabited worlds for some reason. I think most players enjoy the occasional game where they're the bad guys, but this obviously wouldn't be the game for everyone.

There could be a Type III civilization that keeps others down, swatting the flies before they can become a real threat. This could also be interesting, as the PCs would be facing a vastly superior foe. How do you defeat a galaxy-conquering species that is millions or even billions of years more advanced technologically? Do you make this an Ewoks vs Empire type situation for the players? Do the PCs just try to find a place to hide, searching the galaxy for an even more backwater world to relocate to once Earth has been discovered?

9. The government is covering up the evidence.

Maybe there are thousands of extraterrestrial civilizations, maybe there's one Type III super-civilization, or something in between. No matter what, the various world governments (or at least the great powers) are suppressing that knowledge. While many scientists might scoff at this in real life, it has vast potential for gaming. Of course, you could go the X-Files route, with the players trying to uncover the alien conspiracy. Or you could go the Star Gate route, with the PCs being the agents of the government(s) who go out among the stars to deal with alien threats and treat with alien allies.

10. The aliens are all around us, but we just can't detect them. 

Maybe their technology is so different from ours that we can't detect them because we're looking for the wrong things (and vice versa). Maybe their form of life is just so alien to ours that we wouldn't even be able to notice them (non-carbon based, for example) if we were standing next to them.

In the first case, the PCs may be in for a surprise first contact, thinking the campaign was something along the lines of suggestions 1 and 2 above, only to meet a twist along the way. This would switch the explore/survive campaign into a study/befriend campaign. Or an alien war, those are always fun, too.

In the second case, maybe the thrust of the game is to learn about these truly alien life forms, and eventually find some way to make contact with them. There's a lot we could learn from a species so different from us that we wouldn't even likely be competing for the same planets (unless one or both of us are into terraforming!). I could see a game starting out where a planet that we had detected as Earth-like was not (terraformed by the aliens to suit their biology) by the time a generational or hypersleep colony ship could arrive. Solve that mystery, players!

There's more that can be gleaned from the Fermi Paradox and the idea of the Great Filter, these are just a few. Feel free to chime in with others you might think of (or ways to improve my ideas) in the comments!

Wednesday, July 6, 2016

The Dead City

The Dead City

Being a continuation of the adventures of the redoubtable Green Knight Jack Summerisle, and companions various and sundry, beneath the surface of the world of Eberron.

After spending some time resting and recuperating among the friendly gnomes of Kyber, our allies assembled: the cookie-baking gnomes, the rock-men, mushroom men, a Hive of intelligent insects, the odd survivor gnomes of a lost colony, satyrs from the surface of the mountains...even the pixies which had tortured us with their magics while we sought the way to the ghoul kingdom. Assembled, they mustered their forces and set out to create a distraction to draw as many of the ghoul forces from their city as possible, so that our party of stout-hearted adventurers could enter and hopefully find and free the father of our ranger Jade, and also the Crown of Air and Darkness. Our party consisted of myself and my trusty giant cave weta Cassius, Rhea the Witch, Thea the Storm-Cleric, and two new companions who the gnomes had introduced, Jub the Dragonborn Cleric of Bahamut and Flagan the Halfling Monk.

We sailed down the subterranean river once again, and this time met little resistance. The clutching hands that sprang from the waters  hindered us only slightly as we passed this time, as my axe and the divine powers of the two clerics caused them some distress. We also spied some strange, lumpen-backed insect creatures, but they did nothing to threaten, and we let them pass. Thus, we reached the gates of the Ghoul Kingdom unmolested.

The gates posed a challenge, however. We became aware of their guardians -- animated jack-o-lanterns of fearsome aspect and all-seeing eyes. Luckily, our allies had provided a supply of biscuits that when eaten would shrink one down to a tiny size (Rhea and Jub took those) and three cloaks that allowed us to blend with our surroundings. As there was no hiding loyal Cassius, I hid myself upon his back using a cloak, and concealed Rhea in my pocket. Thea likewise concealed Jub. As Thea and Flagan used their cloaks to sneak through the open gates, Rhea's familiar, now in the form of a spider-bat, flew over the walls and Cassius "chased" the familiar as if hunting it for food.

Our plan nearly succeeded. We passed the first guardians without a problem, but a second pair at a stairway leading down to the city noticed something odd. We sprang into action to stop them announcing our presence. In a fearsome melee that followed, we managed to defeat two. One was a large beast of an undead pumpkin, another was some sort of mind-bending abomination that thought to steal my mind from me. Through persistence, we were able to defeat these foes, although poor Flagan was swallowed by the beastly pumpkin at one point. The third, a tricksy rock-throwing guardian, managed to escape. 

Now the way is clear. We begin our descent into the Kingdom of the Ghouls! 

Wednesday, June 29, 2016

Mentzer Basic Cover to Cover: Procedures and Rules 4

This is the last of four posts covering this grab-bag of game rules section, and it covers Multiple Characters to Turning Undead. After this, we move on to the monster section of the DM book.

Multiple Characters
First off, Frank advises that beginning players should NOT run multiple characters, as it may get confusing and they have a lot to learn already. Fair enough. He goes on to suggest that when the players are more experienced, they may run more than one PC, but he suggests each be in a different town in the campaign world. The assumption I'm making here is that like in an old Wizardry computer game, Frank expects that nothing exists except for "The Town" and "The Dungeon" at this point in the process.

And looking back at my own experience as a DM, that's more or less what I did at first. After a few months of just making dungeons that were "near" the unnamed town, I took a bunch of graph paper and made a "wilderness" area with several small dungeons, forests, a dry lake, an old temple, some mines, etc. scattered around the area beyond the town. When I later got the Expert Set, I ended up basing the campaign in Threshold, and this area I'd made up I put somewhere in the northern "viking" kingdoms of the Known World map.

However, in my early gaming there was often only myself and one or two friends playing, so we almost always ran a stable of PCs, with one player running a whole party if it was just two of us, and even if there were more players we'd usually have several PCs each -- and some of the DM's PCs would often round out the party. But we never did the dreaded "DM PC" thing, we were always careful to let the player make decisions about how to handle any encounters.

New Rules and Items
First off, we get some good advice about winging it when players try something unexpected or not covered by the rules. Frank suggests checking to see if an ability score would work, and give a roll (equal or lower on 1d20 plus or minus a penalty as appropriate, or 3d6, 4d6, etc.). These rulings should be written down to be consistently applied, and become new rules -- but if a rule in a later set trumps these rules, he says switch to the official rule and let the players know there's a change. Obviously, informing the players of a change is necessary, but if what you're already doing works and makes everyone happy, there's not much need to switch to the "official" rule.

So again, we've got that idea that rules need to be "official" in here, and so many players over the years have bought into that. I was one of them once. But maybe this is a discussion for another day.

For the DM, creating new monsters and magic items, Frank wisely suggests not to do it while you're learning the rules, and when you do start to do it, base them on monsters and items already in the books. Frank says, "the entire game system is carefully balanced, and a too-powerful item is very hard to get rid of, once it has been put into the game" (p. 20). While again 'game balance' is a topic that's been beaten to death and isn't what I want to discuss here, this is good advice. One of my cousins, when he was DMing, created the "Hell Axe" (based on something in a Choose-Your-Own-Adventure type book he'd read) which was a battle axe +20. Yeah, you read that right. It might also have been flaming. I don't remember. Anyway, with that kind of bonus, you will never miss unless you roll a natural 1, and even many dragons (in this rule set anyway) will go down in one hit. I allowed it for one session and one session only.

Questions
If you have questions, Frank advises you to read carefully through the rules again, as the answer might be there already, and also to consider that the Expert Set may also have an answer to some questions. If that doesn't help, it's best to find some other gamers with more experience and ask them. Of course, for me, a kid growing up in very rural Illinois, that wasn't really an option. I didn't know any older kids who gamed (or if I knew them, I didn't know they gamed) and my parents weren't the type to frequent comics or hobby shops when we went to town. If all else fails, Frank provides an address for questions to be sent to TSR, please include a self-addressed stamped envelope for the answer.

Retainers
If you have 3 or more players, you shouldn't need retainers, Frank tells us. But if there are only one or two, you might consider it. He suggests that every class except for the Thief and Magic-User could survive alone, if they are careful, but they may want to bring some assistance. If the DM wants to allow this, then you can just say the party finds some retainers, tell them how much they cost (or allow them to have a half share of treasure), and write up sheets for their stats and give them a bit of personality.

If the players and DM agree, though, the process of hiring can be role played. Frank gives us a three step process for running this.
1. Be ready to describe a local tavern or other location where potential retainers can be found.
2. Have plenty of "Normal Men" apply, and a couple of classed NPCs of the type preferred. Have some general descriptions ready for each of these NPCs.
3. For classed characters, roll their ability scores on the spot, or just make them up (so the Fighter has high Strength, for example), and again give them some personality quirks to make them memorable.

In our early games, before we started using the stable of PCs I describe above, I did allow some retainers, but I just went with the hand-wave system above. Also, "retainers" were always classed NPCs. I never bothered with what AD&D calls hirelings. Now, I think it might have been fun if I'd thrown in some normal men pretending to be Fighters, Magic-Users, etc. and when the players ask the 'cleric' retainer to turn undead and they can't... Fun. Something for the next campaign, I guess! Anyway, there's a modified version of the Reaction Roll to decide if the potential retainer accepts the deal or not.

Retainers have Morale scores based on the hiring PC's Charisma score and modified by good or poor treatment, but unlike monsters, when to check it is different. Always check at the end of an adventure to see if the retainer stays on. There's also a fuzzy sentence saying that it can be checked during adventures, with a reminder to check the Morale rules section (where, if you remember, we're told to check if the retainer is ordered to do something dangerous while the PC sits back in safety, or if they are damaged and have 1/4 or fewer hit points remaining).

These days, I'm always allowing "normal man" hirelings to be employed, and I think next time I run a campaign (still playtesting Chanbara on the rare times I get to run a session these days), I'll also throw in some classed NPC retainers/henchmen, and some 0-level wanna-be retainers for the players to consider hiring on.

Sleep Spells
This is the most powerful 1st Level spell in the game, so it's fitting that it (like Charm Person) gets its own section describing its effects. First, we're reminded that this spell will only affect creatures with 4+1 hit dice or less (so ogres can be affected), there is no saving throw, and only 'normal' creatures. Undead are immune, as are fantastical creatures like a medusa or gargoyle.

The next two paragraphs explain how to roll for and determine the hit dice of creatures affected by the spell (roll 2d8, ignore 'pluses' or 'minuses' to hit dice, no partially asleep creatures, start with the weakest creatures first). Finally, we get an optional rule saying that the DM can just decide how many creatures are affected up to the maximum possible result instead of rolling, in order to make a killer encounter into an easier one.

It actually doesn't touch on many of the problems that have cropped up because of this spell, but maybe back in '83 most of those problems weren't considered problems yet. Personally, I think the spell has been overly nerfed in more recent editions. 4E allowed a saving throw EVERY ROUND! 5E has you roll a random number of hit points instead of hit dice, and with the hit point inflation of that edition, that doesn't leave it affecting many creatures, AND they get a saving throw. But again, this is a discussion for another post (one I do have planned to write, comparing spell durations and numbers of spells per day across different editions as a means of balancing spell casters).

Thief Abilities
First, be aware of what these abilities are, and be sure there are opportunities for their use in your dungeons. I'm often guilty of the flat dungeon, with very little vertical challenge that allows low level thieves to use the one ability that they actually have a good chance of success on. Sure there are traps and locked doors, and places where listening, hiding or moving silently are useful. But the climbing one I should really work into my dungeons more.

Frank reminds the young DM that Hear Noise is on a d6, but other abilities are on a d%, and that the DM should always ask the player for their chance, and the DM should roll. Why the DM should roll is discussed later.

Next, we've got a section that it seems many DMs I read about on the internet ignore (or never learned, if they stared with a different edition). "A failed roll will often simply have no result" (p. 21). Frank specifically calls out Remove Traps, leaving it up to the DM to decide if failure sets off the trap or not. Maybe so many people complain that the Thief is worthless because too many DMs always have the trap go off if the roll fails. Maybe, just maybe, if the Thief were able to try to remove the trap without consequences of failing that 15% chance roll, there would be more perceived value in the Thief.

Finally, Frank mentions that the DM is free to simply decide whether the attempt succeeds or not (but as usual, always roll to keep players guessing). He gives an example of the PCs running from a tough monster and being blocked by a locked door. In this case, wanting to avoid a TPK (no, Frank doesn't use that term), the DM can decide the Thief is successful, but maybe after forcing the group to fight for a round or two.

Timekeeping 
Nowhere near as dramatic as Mr. Gygax in the AD&D DMG with its all caps warning, Frank simply suggests that in order to keep track of things like spell durations and wandering monster checks, it's good to have a system in place to keep track of time passing.

Transferring Characters
Way before there was a FLAILSNAILS Convention to reference for this sort of thing, Frank suggests three things to look for in a character that a player wants to bring to your game from another game:
1. higher level
2. more or better magic items
3. treasure owned is more than 50% greater than that of the current PCs
If any of these are true, don't allow the PC in the game, unless you and the player can negotiate some changes (in private, before the game).

I think the first one might be hard for players to accept. "Yes, you can run your PC, but only if they drop from 6th level down to 2nd." Since rolling up a new character isn't that hard in this edition, I think I'd rather do that. But then I'm always full of ideas for characters that might be fun to play. Some players really love their character (you know, they pretty much play the same character all the time). Leaving behind some treasure or magic items might be easier to swallow.

And of course, you've then got the question -- if I go back to my original game, do I get the XP and treasure I earned in this game along with the levels and/or treasure that was given up? Or is this now an alternate universe doppelganger of my original character? If the change to the new campaign is expected to be permanent, a lot of these issues cease to be issues, but they aren't really mentioned. It's just assumed that the PC will now be part of this game, with any changed necessary, or else they can't be imported into the campaign.

Turning Undead
As with Charm and Sleep spells, Turning needs a bit of extra explanation, and we get it here. Frank again covers the basic mechanics - the player declares they will Turn Undead, and rolls 2d6 against the chart by the type of undead. If they roll the number or better, the undead are turned, and the DM rolls 2d6 hit dice (or can choose the result, maximum numbers turned by type are listed up through Mummy).

Because the chart lists Wraiths and Mummies for reference (both are in the Expert Set), there's a chart for Clerical turning up to level 7 for Wights, Wraiths and Mummies. In this way, higher level NPC Clerics might appear and turn some undead.

One interesting note - Frank describes a wraith as "a shadow which flies, and drains levels as a wight" (p. 21). There's been some discussion in the OSR about how physical wraiths are, based on Tolkien, the LBBs, etc. Here, Frank is saying they're incorporeal. Of course, DMs are free to disregard that, and other editions may describe them differently. But here, in this version, they're explicitly stated as being ghostly.

As with Sleep spells, monsters can't be partially turned. Remainders are discarded. While it doesn't say, if turning a higher hit die undead creature and you roll lower than even one's hit dice, none run away. But if the attempt is successful, the Cleric can attempt to Turn again in the next round. This is actually something I don't think I ever considered the full ramifications of until now.

Higher level Clerics get to automatically succeed against lesser undead, but you still need to roll for the number of hit dice affected. So when facing off against a vampire or specter, say, a Cleric may succeed to turn, but still roll too few hit dice to affect it this round. But next round, they might. The Cleric still succeeded in the attempt, it's just that none were affected. I think I always just used the alternate rule especially with vampires, in that if the Cleric succeeded, ONE vampire would flee (and it's not often that multiple vampires were encountered). But by the rules, the Cleric may spend the round Turning Undead but have no effect, and the rest of the players are battling it out (and the vampire, if smart - and many are - is trying to level drain that Cleric!) waiting for the next round for the Cleric to attempt it again. That would make for a great tense battle situation. Note to self, remember this!

Finally, we get something I think I've always overlooked -- the official duration of a Turn effect. 1-10 rounds (roll or decide). I've more or less just always ruled that the undead flee and won't return until much later (if at all), but by the book, Turning is only a temporary measure. Again, this could add some great tension to a battle as written. Again, note to self, remember this!

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And now I've finally completed this 8-page section of the rules. I'll be moving on to the monster chapter hopefully next week.